7. Historic Background

The structures identical to a flying saucer were used on Earth several thousand years ago, back in the times of Sanskrit Civilization. Let us quote the description of a Viman from the ancient Sanskrit manuscript Samarangana Sutratkhara:

Strong and hard should be its body, made of light material, like a huge bird that flies. Inside a device with mercury in it should be placed with a heater made of iron underneath it. Through the force concealed within mercury that drives the carrying whirlwind, a man placed into this chariot can fly over huge distances in a most miraculous way. Four hard vessels for mercury should be placed inside. When these are heated by the controlled fire from the iron heaters, the chariot develops the strength of thunder thanks to mercury and immediately the chariot turns into a pearl in the sky.

The above description contains all the features of the device under study. We have got two different materials, i.e., iron and mercury. We have the carrying whirlwind and heating. One should also pay attention to the number of segments. The question is, though, why mercury? Let us study the thermoelectric series:

Justy series (1948)

Bi 80

Co 21

Ni 20

K 14

Pd 8

Na 7

Pt 5

Hg 5

C 3.5

Al 1.5

Rh + 1

Zn + 1.5

Ag + 1.5

Au + 1.5

Cu + 2

W + 2.5

Fe + 12.5

Sb + 42

Si + 44

Te + 49

Meissner series (1955)

Bi 70

Co 18.5

Ni 18

K 12

Pd 6

Pb 0.1

Sn + 0.1

Zn + 2.9

Mo +5.9

Fe + 16

Sb + 35

Te + 400

Se + 1000


It is clear that the most adequate material is iron (Fe). Iron had already been known back then and its factor is higher tan, say the one of copper, also a well known material in the ancient times. Of all the materials with the hole-type thermo-emf the best one will be mercury. Pt is very expensive, and nobody knew how to get Co, Ni, Bi and Al. Pb smelts easily. The only option left is mercury. This element was well known and they could extract it. Besides, mercury is a very active liquid, which smelts most metals with the exception of iron), and when it comes into contact with iron, the thermoelectric contact, or, in other words, soldered joint, is provided for automatically. As far as other metals are concerned, such a joint should be prepared for them in advance, whereas mercury wets iron well. Now let us turn to the ancient Sanskrit sign well known nowadays as a swastika (see Figure 26). It is nothing else but the electric current diagram for a Viman, or, in other words, a flying saucer. It means that thousands years ago people knew about these devices, built them and used them, having no complex machinery and equipment. A flying saucer' is as simple as any stoke of genius.


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