**“A flying saucer is something simple!” **

** **

"Complexity is complexly expounded simplicity."

Kalagia

One of the basic features and probably the main one of a UFO type device is its capacity to transform an electromagnetic field which in turn is a manifestation of time and space. The electromagnetic field of planets, stars and galaxies is a power-consuming media used by aforementioned devices for travelling. Further on when describing the operation of time and space field transformers we shall use the term “a flying saucer” or just “a saucer”.

**1. Layout **

The operational basis for a “flying saucer” type of a device is made by an operation of a space thermocouple.

Let us remind you that if a closed chain is made up by two different conductors, and the temperature of their soldered joints is maintained on a different level, then an electric current conditioned by electromotive force (emf) occurs within such a chain. In this specific case such a force is called thermoelectromotive force (thermo-emf). A chain where the current is conditioned by thermo-emf is called a thermocouple.

Within small temperature intervals thermo-emf is proportional to the soldered joints temperature difference:

E = a (T1 – T2)

The a value is called a thermocouple constant. The direction and other parameters of electric current are the function of metals' position within a thermoelectric series.

Let us study the operation of a thermoelectric device made up by two different metal plates, each of them having a shape of a circle. The plates are connected to each other by means of soldered joints.

**1-st type **

Different conductors of a circular shape with an R radius are connected by means of: soldered joints made along the radii thus breaking up the circle into equal segments; one soldered joint with an r radius connecting all the radial soldered joints; and one central soldered joint. All the radial soldered joints are cut at the edge of the circle (see Figure 1). Let's assume for the sake of the argument the number of radial soldered joints being six. The heat is applied in the center of the central soldered joint. Heat transition within the metals of this device is described by the Furrier's law.

dQ = -l S dt dT/dL

where dT/dL is a temperature gradient;

l is thermal conductivity;

S is a carry surface area;

then

dT/dL = - dQ/dt x 1/l2pRa

where a is material thickness.

Thus, in our case a temperature gradient is inversely proportional to the radius.

dT/dL ~ 1/R

Should we maintain T1 temperature in the central soldered joint, then on the circular soldered joint of the r radius we shall have the points with the T2 temperature, so that

T2 - T1=dTmin

where dT a temperature difference providing for electric current initiation within the given circuit under study. The points with the T2 temperature according to the reasons stated below will occur at the equal distances between the radial soldered joints (see Figure 2). For each point having the T2 temperature there will be a point with the T3 temperature so, that

T3 – T2 = dTmin

where dTmin is the minimal necessary temperature difference for the minimal possible electric current to occur for the given circuit under study.

For every point with the T3 temperature found on the radial soldered joint there will be points with the temperature T4 found on the adjacent radial soldered joints, so the condition mentioned above is in place. For every point with the T4 temperature there will be a point with the T5 temperature found, etc. At the tips of the radial soldered joints or in their immediate vicinity there are points with the Tn temperature where the whole process ends. No current will be transmitted from a T3 point to the point lying between the T4 and T5 points, for as the resistance increases the current will be lower than the minimum possible one for the given circuit. No current will be transmitted from a T3 point to a point lying below T4 either, for a merger of resulting currents with the newly generated currents will result in a raised energy status of the system. The latter, however, is impossible. The total picture of the currents will be identical to the one found at Figure 3. Figure 3 shows that the currents' field has a helix shaped structure with the current density gradiently decreasing from the center to the periphery.

The smoothness of the helix and the dependence of its radius on the angle of the helix curve, in other words, the steepness of a helix, depend on the quantity of the radial soldered joints.

Helix shaped current streams are influenced by Ampere forces. Let us study Figure 4, where three streams of current with identical helix direction are shown. The streams will be marked as I1, I2 and I3. The I2 current stream is attracted to the I1 current stream rather than to I3 current stream, for the distance between I2 and I3 currents always exceeds the one between I2 and I1 currents due to the hyperbolic dependence of the temperature gradient. Thus, for any given set of three adjacent current streams the middle stream is attracted to the one located closer to the center, in other words, F1 is always greater than F2. Due to the helix shaped flow of current, when the angle of the helix curve varies as a function of the radius change, the Ampere force applied to every point of a current stream (with the exception of the point on the radius) will have its eccentricity with the center. Let us show the F1 and F1' forces on a section of the current placed between the two adjacent radial soldered joints, and split the forces into their tangential and regular constituents, Fn and Ft. The current can not merge under the influence of its regular constituent, for wen the current streams merge together, new streams are immediately and continuously formed in their place which would result in an increase of the system's energy status, which is impossible. Under the influence of their regular constituent the current streams acquire their slight bending. The action of the tangential constituent, however, can allow the helix system to move in circles around the center without any change of the energy status alongside with the appearance of the necessary conditions outlined below. No modification of the system status occurs as a function of Ampere forces action within the intersections of the current's helixes of the opposite directions, for the system is in equilibrium.

Every helix shaped current stream can be treated as a coil with the number of turns comparable to the magnitude inversely proportional to the interatomic spacing due to a high temperature gradient in proximity to the heating area.

The inductivity of such a coil will be very high.

L = mW x W S/l

Where W is a number of turns.

The emf of self-induction for such a coil will be directly proportional to the square of the number of turns. The current reduction is determined by a helix character of the resistance.

E = - LdI/dt = = -mWW S/l x dI/dt.

With the helix formation and the increase of the number of turns the coil inductivity increases. It is this high inductivity that allows the helix system to rotate. Indeed, when turning, the tips of the helix enter the area of thermo-emf absence. This leads to reduced resistance and increased current, which, provided there is a constant rotation (and insufficiently high inductivity) would have lead to a continuous growth of the energy status of the system, which is impossible. However, at a certain value of inductivity the emf of self-induction does not allow for the current growth. This is manifested by the ability of the free helix tips to move in the area of thermo-emf absence at the expense of the emf of self-induction, manifested by high potential difference and an electric discharge, shorting the helix circuit between the plates.

Consequently, with the helix formation and the inductivity approaching its certain critical value of Lcr, which can provide for reaching the emf of self-induction, its value being equal to the breakdown voltage between the plates, the helix system will start its rotation in the direction of the helix rotation. In our case the helixes rotate towards each other. With the increase of the rotating system's diameter the breakdown voltage move in a radial manner from the center to the periphery, rotating in the opposite directions in conformity with the opposite direction of the helixes' rotation (see Figure 5). Should the emf of self-induction exceed the value of the break-down voltage and beyond the thermo-emf influence area the excess charge moves in a radial manner from the center to the periphery.

It should be mentioned here that within a thermocouple one part has its electric conductivity, i.e., negatively charged particles move, and the other part has its *p *-type (hole-type) conductivity, i.e., positively charged particles move. All the system of the currents will look according to Figure 6. Let us note that when turning, the currents from point T1 to point T2 bend towards each other under the influence of the Ampere forces.

**2-nd type **

The second type is identical to the first one. This also is a space thermocouple made up of the plates having different nature and a circular shape, connected by radial soldered joints. The central soldered joint is missing, though. The circumference perimeter is connected by a soldered joint with the R radius instead. The second soldered joint with the r radius is places at a certain distance l from the circumference soldered joint, thus determining the position for T2 points. Radial soldered joints also split the circle into equal number of segments. The tips of the radial soldered joint do not reach the center of circumference, thus forming a free area (see Figure 7).

In this case the heating goes along the circumference soldered joint. In conformity with the logical chain described above, the currents will look as described by Figure 8. The rotation of the entire system is effected in the direction of the helixes' rotation.

Magnetic streams formed by the helix shaped currents of both types will have their structure as shown by Figure 9 (the first type is shown).